Sports-Recreational Center Tašmajdan, Tašmajdan rock – Belgrade
Tašmajdan rock is located above the south-western and western stands of the open-air stadium Tašmajdan, within Sports-recreational center Tašmajdan in Belgrade. It represents a part of the remaining Miocene sandbank from Baden age (15-20 million years ago) used by the Romans and later the Turks for the construction of various buildings in Belgrade and the surrounding. By the exploitation of limestone in Tasmajdan amphitheater was created and many underground passages, natural caves and caverns were opened. Stadium Tašmajdan was built in the period 1955-1956 on the place of a former quarry (amphitheatre), while respecting the current situation. The project was carried out in a way that the stadium as a whole leaned directly on Tašmajdan plateau, the edge of Miocene sandbank and totally fitted in the existing rock massif of Tašmajdan. In 1968 Tašmajdan rock was declared to be protected natural good in general use (Monument of nature “Tašmajdan”).
The rock, especially above the south-western stands of the stadium, had a great number of holes, cracks and other damages caused in time by atmospheric effects. Dense vegetation, whose roots mechanically damaged the rock even more, was growing out of openings and cracks filled with dust and soil. Parts of rock were unstable and prone to falling. The rock was extremely dilapidated, without any mechanical strength. It was crumbling under a firmer touch. Considering that it contains clay, wet rock behaved like mud. The rock above the western stands was somewhat more homogenous regarding its structure, mechanically harder, but still with a great number of damages in the form of holes and very deep cracks.
Repair and restoration-conservation works on Tašmajdan rock started in late September 2013 and finished in April 2014:
- Preparation works: cutting and uprooting self-grown vegetation, removing unstable pieces of rock, mechanical cleaning of the rock by dry and wet sandblasting (works were not done by the company Hemi Eco);
- Removing the dust and soil from the cracks in the rock;
- Repair of the damages: placing anchors made of galvanized steel into the cracks and holes in the rock, setting up the galvanized netting;
- Anchoring holes in the rock remained after placing geo-mechanical anchors, bonding the galvanized netting;
- Restoration: background preparation for artificial stone;
- Restoration: filling in the holes and cracks in the rock with artificial stone;
- Setting up electrical cables into the existing cracks in the rock, digging in cables into the rock;
- Consolidation - strengthening the rock with a two-component product Eco Consolid K;
- Protection - conservation of the rock with the product Eco Impegnir MK.
Used consolidation and conservation technologies are unique. Consolidation and conservation were done “in situ
” on Tašmajdan rock and they were the first of that kind ever performed in the world.